博文

照明设计的先驱—理查德·凯利 2013/2/19 10:17:06
想帮博主提高知名度就分享到: 新浪微博 QQ空间 腾讯微博 微信 更多
分类:默认分类 标签:建筑照明 其它 
   

译自英文版《照明学报》< Lighting Journal >20118/ / 55 / /“光之英雄”专题

光之英雄 15:理查德·凯利(1910-1977

卡尔·加德纳评价此人是20世纪建筑照明设计领域毫无争议的先驱。


    

   

        这在今天看来似乎也是非同寻常的,但理查德·凯利(见右图)的确在他25岁时,也就是1935年,进入耶鲁大学建筑学院之前(他在那里学习舞台灯光,以及其他学科)开始了自己以纽约为基地的照明实践活动,这可能是世界上第一家此类咨询顾问公司。要知道,当时电力照明已经有50年的历史了。凯利描述了推广这门新学科的困难,他回顾道:“那时候还没有照明顾问这个职业。人们只愿意花钱购买灯具设备,而不愿意为我的想法买单”这与50年后第一个英国照明设计从业者的遭遇如出一辙(译者附注:当今中国照明设计师的境遇与其亦何其相似)。

真正的创新

    作为一个在理论与实践两方面真正的创新者,理查德·凯利的职业生涯致力于使照明设计被社会认可和自身的进步,通过他不懈地努力和积极倡导,建立起了光与建筑密切的关系。受困于二战前项目的缺乏,他开始系统地编写和讲授光与建筑的关系,为新兴的照明设计行业确定称呼和名字。20世纪50年代初,他已为现代建筑的照明设计定义了一个词汇表,包括一些关键项:“焦点光”(高光)、“环境光”(分级洗亮)和“华丽光”(锐利的细节)。凯利作为一名教育工作者,为包括耶鲁大学,普林斯顿大学和哈佛大学的学生演讲,与下一代照明设计师分享他的关于“光”的哲学,并帮助建立了一个时至今日都赢得广泛赞誉的体系。

    1944年从耶鲁大学毕业,凯利在建筑和照明工程两个领域均游刃有余。他在照明设计领域的素养和坚定不移的信念,为他赢得了上世纪中叶最重要的建筑师和设计师的尊重,这也促成了他与埃罗·沙里宁、密斯·凡德罗、菲利普·约翰逊以及路易斯·康的合作,一同营造了20世纪最具标志性的建筑,包括约翰逊的玻璃屋(1949年),密斯的西格拉姆大厦(1954年至1958年),沙里宁的通用汽车技术中心(1946年至1955年),和卡恩的金贝尔艺术博物馆(1967年至1972年)。

    凯利始终不愿意受限于那个时代的照明解决方案。当用现成的产品无法实现他的理念时,他经常寻求杰出的照明和电气工程师的援助,开发新的照明技术。1958年,为了要把西格拉姆大厦变成一个“光之塔”,凯利联手莱特利尔的诺埃尔·佛罗伦萨,设计了一个定制的天花板,包括最大的平板扩散。该系统配备有两个独立的电路,一个在白天用来照明,另一个使用分立的25%输出,以创建一个天黑之后醒目的塔。他还设计了另一个很有影响的照明系统,巴比松广场酒店 - 这是一个无线的吊灯,一个巨大的蓟吊坠,通过其金属边框为低瓦数的灯泡提供电力。

基础日光

在采光成为一个在建筑师和照明设计师中时髦的名词之前,凯利就认为,这是必不可少的建筑照明设计。他说:“处理的形式,一个房间的意义与日光密切相关”。为金贝尔艺术博物馆所做的照明设计,凯利主要依赖日光,作为照明的主要来源定义空间。在计算机计算和渲染工具面世之前好几十年,他就随着建筑规划的进程优化自然采光,研究日光路径和亮度模式。他把自己的这些日光知识与长期合作者爱迪生·普林斯的制造才能,以及工程师伊萨克·古德巴的数学方面的精确知识巧妙地结合。他们一起设计了至今仍然非常著名的摆线拱顶,用穿孔铝板曲面反射镜,将自然光反射、漫射进博物馆。

虽然取得了诸多成就,但凯利永不自满。在1958年的一次采访中,他说:“照明在很大程度上是一门视觉艺术 - 建筑,最重要的是 - 我敢肯定,我们今天所能做到的最好,明天就可能过时。理论上,我可以用大量先进的技术提高人们的生活水平,或者让房子看起来更漂亮,但是在我们把这些变成现实之前,一切只是停留在纸面上的理论。”

1977年他去世之后,北美照明工程学会以他的名字设立了理查德·凯利奖,以鼓励年轻人在照明领域的创新。




   

(图注:得克萨斯州沃思堡的金贝尔艺术博物馆,凯利设计出独特的的日光反射、漫射系统)

 

英文原文:

Lighting Journal//August 2011//page55//Heroes of Light

Heroes of light No 15: Richard Kelly (1910-1977)

 

Carl Gardner profiles the man who has astrong claim to be the first 20th century pioneer of the practice ofarchitectural lighting design

 

It seems extraordinary now, but at 25 yearsold, back in 1935, Richard Kelly (right) established his own New York-basedlighting practice, before enrolling at the Yale School of Architecture (wherehe studied stage lighting, amongst other disciplines). This was probably thefirst such consultancy in the world, at the time when electric lighting itselfwas little more than half a century old. Kelly characterized the difficulty inselling this new discipline, when he reflected ‘There weren’t lightingconsultants then. Nobody would pay for my ideas, but they would buy fixtures’ –a story echoed 50 years later by the first UK lighting design practitioners.

 

True Innovator

A true innovator in spirit and practice,Richard Kelly dedicated his professional career to the recognition andadvancement of lighting design, and throughout his career, championed a closepartnership between light and architecture. Frustrated by the lack of workbefore the War, and he began to write and lecture on the integral relationshipbetween light and architecture, giving voice and name to the emerging practiceof lighting design. By the early 1950s, he had defined a vocabulary for modernarchitectural lighting design, including a number of key terms: ‘focal glow’(highlights), ambient luminescence (graded washes) and ‘play of brilliants’(sharp details). As an educator lecturing at institutions including Yale,Princeton, and Harvard, Kelly shared his philosophy of light with the nextgeneration of lighting designers and helped to establish a legacy that hasbloomed out of all recognition today.

 

Having graduated from Yale in 1944, Kellyfelt comfortable addressing both the architectural and illumination engineeringcommunities. His training and unwavering belief in lighting design earned himthe respect of some of the most important architects and designers mid-century,and led to collaborations with Mies van der Rohe, Philip Johnson, EeroSaarinen, and Louis Kahn, and the realisation of a number of the 20thcentury’s most iconic buildings, including Johnson’s Glass House (1949), Mies’sSeagram Building (1954-58), Saarinen’s General Motors Technical Center(1946-55), and Kahn’s Kimbell Art Museum (1967-72).

 

Kelly always refused to be confined bycontemporary lighting solutions. When he was unable to realize his concept withreadily available products, he developed new lighting technologies, oftenseeking assistance from leading illumination and electrical engineers. Totransform the Seagram Building into a ‘Tower of Light’ in 1958, Kelly teamed upwith Noel Florence at Lightolier, to design a custom luminous ceiling,comprised of the largest flat diffusers. The system was outfitted with twoindependent circuits, one of daytime illumination and another using separate lampsat 25% output to create a glowing tower after dark. He also designed anotherinfluential lighting system for the Barbizon-Plaza Hotel – this was a wirelesschandelier, a huge, thistle-like pendant that carried electricity tolow-wattage bulbs through its metal frame.

 

Essential Daylight

Long before daylighting became a buzzwordamong architects and lighting designers, Kelly argued that it was essential toarchitectural lighting design. He said, ‘The handling of forms, the meaning ofa room has to relate to daylight’. Designing the lighting for the Kimbell ArtMuseum, Kelly strongly relied on daylight as the primary source of illuminationto define the space. Decades before computer calculation and rendering toolsbecame available, he studied solar paths and brightness patterns along withbuilding plans to optimize natural light. He combined this knowledge ofdaylight with the manufacturing expertise of his long-time collaborator EdisonPrice, and the mathematical precision of engineer Issac Goodbar. Together theydesigned the now-famous cycloid vault and curved reflector of perforatedaluminium that channels reflected and diffuse natural light into the museum.

 

Despite his many successes, Kelly was neversatisfied. As he said in an interview in 1958, ‘Lighting is such a large partof the visual arts – and architecture, most of all – that I’m sure the best wecan do today will be inadequate tomorrow. I can logically project a great manytechniques in lighting to improve people’s lives or to make a house morebeautiful, but it’s all theory until we have the record of experience, which weare only beginning to write.’

 

After his death in 1977, the IlluminatingEngineering Society of North America established the Richard Kelly Grant in hisname to encourage creativity in lighting among young people.

 

(picture note: The Kimbell Art Museum inFort Worth, Texas where Kelly designed the unique daylight reflection/diffusionsystem)

    
    


2
  • 阅读(7548)|
  • 评论(1)|
  • 转载(0)