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T&P OF CREATING LIGHT ART WORKS 2011/10/10 10:14:25
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THEORY AND PRACTICE OF CREATING LIGHT ART WORKS

  Chu Xingwu

  Shanghai Ray Lighting Design Office

  Abstract

  This paper will introduce Grandar’s theory and practice of creating light art works by means of exterior lighting design of Dalian International Conference Center.

  Keywords: lighting design; light art works; Dalian International Conference Center

  1. Introduction

  Darkness has fallen; I walk along the street of the city. Tall and brilliant buildings placed closely side by side, like a huge amount of shiny boxes, shine unwilling and lonely, a little bit feeling of competition with each other for beauty. This scene makes me unpeaceful. Being a lighting designer, I feel a little confused…

  Is this the exact night scene that we want to see? Lighting can be done freely, need no taste? What kind of light does the architecture need? What kind of light environment does the human need? What kind of design style shall we chase? Do we match along the right way?

  These items must be thought thoroughly and carefully!

  1.1 About art

  Art belongs to the aesthetic category of philosophy field. It is outline, refining, and sublimation of life. It is any work or behavior that expresses beauty in order to meet people’s emotional needs, such as literature, painting, sculpture, architecture, music, dance, drama, and movie, etc.

  Art is a kind of creation that can cause people exciting. Art is everywhere. Every act, every word, or every shape might have got the component of art. Anything, science, management, even war is possible to be developed to art level.

  Art originates in life. It is one of the most important part of human’s creation. It is also an important part of a national’s spirit and civilization. Excellent art works are common spirit wealth of whole humanity. Art can cultivate people's sentiment; even promote the paces of human’s progress.

  The essence of art appreciation is filling in the blanks for voids and uncertainties of art works. Meanwhile, voids and uncertainties of art works are the distance between “appearance” and “meaning”.

  The function of art works is not only fresh and pleasant, but more than aesthetic appreciation. Art can purify our minds, and lead us to higher stage of spirit.

  1.2 About light

  The greatest natural light, sunshine, lights up the world. The most beautiful scene at night is the moonlight. Under the moonlight, man will feel relaxed and intoxicated. We once have the opportunity to watch a piece of floating leaf. We like to watch the sunset, the floating clouds, have lost in the natural scenery.

  An outstanding work using natural light is Suzhou Museum, designed by Chinese-born American Architect Ieoh Ming Pei. The white wall is washed by natural light, makes a nice shadow of the tree. The branches swing gently. The smooth shadow dances slowly and constantly, just as a traditional Chinese painting.

  Can night scene move people like it?

  What about artificial light? Today, large amount of artificial light has overflowed in our cities. How to use and control artificial light correctly?

  2. when light meets art

  Light, might be vulgar. Of course, it also might be art. We call it “light art work”, to distinguish with the word: “bright project”, “lighting project”, or “brilliance project”.

  Then, is light a kind of art?

  We say that, not only light is art, but also, all kinds of arts are interlinked each other!

  Art is coverall, for painting, sculpture, music, architecture, and literature… light can absorb nutrients from them.

  Baroque, or Rococo, may indicate a specific architectural style, but also may indicate a kind of music or painting. Leonardo Da Vinci, as an artist, was good at drawing, construction design, invention. Michelangelo Buonarroti was not only a sculpturer, but also a painter, even a poet. Marilyn Monroe building, designed by Architect Mr. Ma Yansong of MAD, is it a sculpture? an architecture? or a music?

  All kinds of sciences are interlinked with each other. For example, the inverse square law of illuminance:

  E=I/d2

  is similar with the law of universal gravitation:

  F=G·m1m2/r2 (Gravitation constant: G=6.67259×10-11N·m2/kg2)

  So, light art can absorb nutrients from the other art fields.

  Art creation is very personalized. Artistic taste is a necessary quality for our designers; Love is a good feeling for our designers; Social responsibility is the faith that our designers must always keep in mind.

  Designers must create light art works by heart. The audiences must comprehend them by heart too.

  3. the values of led light art works

  The glorious mission of light art work design is to recreate new night scene, improve taste experience, endue the architecture with livingness and spirit by light.

  The values of light art works are: not for the brighter scenes or clear objects; not to express all the sceneries in visual field. Light should directly hit the viewer's inner world. Designer should be able to create elegant, valuable, significative, and soulful works!

   So, light is very important for architectures.

    Then, what kind of light we should chase? Natural light, comfortable for people, fixtures are invisible; Original light, change light into art work; imaginative light, let people feel beauty of life.

  We have summarized eight values of LED light art works: visual value; touristy value; social mentality value; environmental value; cultural value; artistic value; technological value; and commercial value.

  Create city’s name card and a precious spiritual wealth for the city.

  There are five stages of creating light art works: rubbish, mediocre, surprise, moved, and realizational:

  Rubbish: should not be exist at the very beginning.

  Mediocre: fast food, copy, numb someone.

  Surprise: artistic, beautiful enjoyment.

  Surprise→Moved: exclamation for better life.

  Surprise→Moved→Realizational: lasting aftertaste, eternal value.

      4. THEory of creating led light art works

  4.1 design philosophy

  Individual: tailored for each project.

  Humanized: human is the most important, architecture services for human.

  Artistic: artistic effect.

  4.2 design faith

  Our spiritual prop is Local Land Lord. We design for the Local Land Lord. We faithful to Local Land Lord.

  4.3 Roles during creation course

  4.4 Four natural laws of light art works creation

  ◎ Moon light law – visible light, invisible lamps at the same time.

  ◎ Dawn light law – shadow follows light.

  ◎ Pole light law – light is one with lamp.

  ◎ Eye light law – emotional light is the most beautiful one.

  4.5 Ten balance principles of light art works creation

  ◎Light, or Shadow?

  Emphasize light and shadow at the same time. Design light equals design shadow.

  ◎Less, or More?

  The less, the more. Express plenty meanings using less ink.

  ◎Bright, or Dark?

  Proper brightness is needed. Darker scene is too difficult to be understood. But over bright will be condemned by self-conscience.

  ◎Dynamic, or Static?

  Ask yourself before you want to design dynamic lighting effects: What shall I want to express? Are dynamic effects necessary?

  ◎Fast, or Slow?

  Emotional control of dynamic lighting effects to the viewers reflects in the grasp of the rhythm.

  ◎Warm, or Cool?

  Important skill to build good atmosphere of light art works.

  ◎White, or Colorful?

  In any case, the use of color light should be very careful.

  ◎Diffuse, or Direct?

  Direct light has a high efficiency, but may cause glare; Diffuse light has a low efficiency, but can be very soft.

  ◎Shaped, or Unshaped?

  Model shaped object using unshaped light.

  ◎Artificial, or Natural?

  Excellent light art works need to eliminate artificial brusque feeling.

Chase the balance in the course of light art work design

  4.6 Art expression of light art works

  At the daytime, different parts of architectural luminance are almost same, so the force of expression to design philosophy is limited. But when evening falls, we can extend the meanings of architecture through light effects, let people can feel and accept the design philosophy of architecture better.

  4.7 inverse design

  List the items those can not be done at first, and then avoid them in the course of design.

  There are two quite different design ways. Which is the first thing? Discussing appearance or arranging luminaires? If arranging luminaires is the first thing, the final appearance will be resigned, won’t it? Is there any art feeling, then?

  Good light art works designer's characters: morality + clever + hardworking + dedication + cooperation

  5. practice of creating led light art works

  We will explain our philosophy through a practical project: Exterior Lighting Design of DICC (Dalian International Conference Center). Start of construction: 11/2008; Completion: 2011

  Dalian, a reputed "romantic metropolis", is a coastal city. In the eyes of the people came to Dalian, her beauty is incomparable.

  DICC, facing the sea, is the junction of land and sea, nature and culture. It will be a world-class multiple-function meeting center and the performance center, meets the requirement of DAVOS FORUM in Dalian completely. It will become a landmark building in Dalian. Therefore, the night scene of DICC must to be a solemn and grand art work, free from vulgarity.

  5.1 Understanding of the architecture

  COOP HIMMELB(L)AU was founded in Vienna, Austria, in 1968, and is active in architecture, urban planning, design, and art. It is one of the biggest architectural firm in the world. It employs currently 150 team members from nineteen nations.

  As a kind of architecture thought in post-modern period, Deconstructive Architecture brought forward its oppugn to traditional architecture in a unique mode.

  The building has both to reflect the promising modern future of Dalian and its tradition as an important port, trade, industry and tourism city.

  The formal language of this project is not pictographic, but associative; it will combine and merge the rational structure and organization of its morden conference center typology with the floating spaces of traditional Asia architecture as well as with a design reminiscent of the soft surfaces generated by the forces of the sea[4].

  DICC needs this sort of light:

  ◎ Natural light, comfortable for people, luminaires are invisible.

  ◎ Original light, to change light into artwork.

  ◎ Imaginative light, let people feel meaning of life.

  We must endue the building with livingness and spirit by light.

  5.2 Design summary

  Design theme: FREE SPACE

  Bound free space of the architecture

  Explain the design philosophy of the architecture

  Show multiple visual feeling of the architecture

  by “light”

  Design style: Simplicity, connotation, and rhythm

  ◎ Simplicity – pure impression

  ◎ Connotation – not flaunty

  ◎ Rhythm – plenty association of ideas

  5.3 Perspective expression

Architecture is concretionary musical notes!

Architecture must mixed with environment!

Architecture will talk to the future!

  5.4 advantages of this project

  ◎ Advantage of art effect

  Innovative LED exact floodlighting art effect

  ◎ Advantages of high-tech

  LED distribution control network technology

  LED BUS-Y technology

  Large-scale rhythm LED Program System

  ◎ Advantages of energy-saving

  Continuous dimming technology

  Scene energy-saving technology

  Interactive lighting control technology

  ◎ Advantages of achievable effect

  Realistic result

  Feasible in construction

  Quality Can be controlled

  6. Ten keywords of creating light art works

  ◎ 10000 hours

  10000 hours =1000 hours/year×10 years =4 hours /day×250 days/year×10 years

  Ten years; Perseverance; Unremitting efforts

  ◎ Design by heart

  Go into the design wholeheartedly. Love the local land, love the project, love the people here, just like to love your relatives. Regardless of the gain and loss.

  ◎ Design from the points of viewers

  Imagine yourself to be the citizens or tourists here. What do you want to see at night? Don't leave the thing, that you yourself don't like, to others . When design is completed, ask yourself if you would like to live in such light environment.

  ◎ Design from the points of customers

  If I am the mayor of this city; if I am the developer of this project; if I am the operators in the future, what kind of light shall I want?

  ◎ Science + art + green

  Scientific design; Art effect; Low carbon, energy conservation, and environmental protection.

  ◎ Contrast between light and shadow

  Contrast between light and shadow; contrast between bright and dark; contrast between strong and weak.

  ◎ Color contrast

  Coloring carefully. Vulgar, or elegant? Noisy, or static? Cold or warm?

  ◎ Research visual psychology

  Research the psychological reaction after the people have seen light art work. Design light full of emotion. Make the viewers comfortable and relaxed, not nervous or elevated blood pressure.

  ◎ Professional ethics

  Remove the luminaires from the place where needn’t light without any hesitation.

  ◎ Creating new tings

  Keep to be interest in the new emerging things. Take enough enthusiasm extremely to innovate. You will soon be eliminated if you don’t innovate.

  Our works are placing there at night. The public have no choice. They have to be accepted. So, we should have a strong sense of social responsibility. The works do not only have to be worth to the owner’s investment, but also to be worth to the local land lord and the public.

  references

  [1] kaoru Mende + Lighting Planners Associates Inc. Lighting design for urban environments and architecture. 2005

  [2] Zhan, Qingxuan. et al. A brighter China and a more colorful life. CIE 26TH SESSION BEIJING 2007

  [3] Aksel, Karcher. et al. Light perspectives between culture and technology. ERCO GmbH, Ludenscheid, 2009

  [4] http://www.coop-himmelblau.at/

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